Par Christine Reymond
Bullying est un concept répandu dans les pays anglo-saxon. Il se base sur le mot "bully" qui désigne toute personne qui en persécute une autre, souvent plus faible et plus vulnérable que lui. Il sera employé pour désigner l'enfant de 2 ans qui griffe et mord ses camarades, ou bien l'adolescent qui persécute un camarade parce qu'il est différent, mais aussi pour parler des hooligans lors des matches de football.
Et si on y réfléchit, on ne trouve pas de mot qui recouvre ce concept en français, alors que l'on dispose d'un beau choix de mots pour désigner la victime : souffre douleur, bouc émissaire, etc. Et cette différence de centration a sûrement des répercussions sur la façon d'envisager le problème....
Si l'on cherche un livre sur le sujet, c'est indiscutablement "Lord of the Flies" de William Golding. le texte n'est pas en ligne, mais voici des suggestions d'exploitation:
Teacher Cyberguide :
A webquest on the book:
A study Guide, with a description of all the characters:
et une reflexion de niveau universitaire:
Si vous souhaitez explorer ce concept à travers les pays anglo-saxons, voici quelques adresses:
The Center for Prevention of School Violence, en rapport avec le ministère de la justice et du traitement de la délinquance juvénile
Le site perso d'une prof, qui s'est penchée sur le problème:
ERIC, le célèbre site de ressources pour l'éducation. Une banque de textes et d'articles sur le sujet :
Voici un site canadien sur bullying, celui qui me parait traiter le mieux le problème. Vous y trouverez des récits de victimes, des conseils et des reflexions qui permettront de discuter du problème en classe:
A School-Based Anti-Violence Program (Autre site du même genre pour l'Ontario)
Bullying Information for Parents and Teachers is an excellent resource. Includes causes and consequences of bullying, classroom suggestions, advice for parents, gender differences in bullying, current bullying research, etc. Site material is excerpted from A.S.A.P.: A School-Based Anti-Violence Program. Site sponsored by the London Family Court Clinic in Ontario, Canada.
Where You Are Not Alone offers stories, drawings, and poems by victims of bullying. Includes media coverage of bullying, educational resources, and related web sites. Project of William Belsey for IEARN-Canada.
antibullying in Scotland:
Pour le Lincolnshire
A European project lead by Goldsmith College in London, including colleagues from Italy, Spain and Portugal:
http://www.nobully.org.nz/ (site des télécom et de la police...)
des articles universitaires
Bowling for Columbine
The film was released in France in October and will soon come out in video format. You certainly have read and heard a lot about it, but do see it before you show it to your students, because it is not only about what happened in Columbine school, but rather a more general reflection about arm violence in the US. As the article in the Guardian say:
" It is a topical and, for Cannes, explicitly radical political film linking what Moore calls the "paranoid mentality" of Americans who love guns to the violent nature of postwar US foreign policy."
So make sure before you study it in class that it will not impair the image your students have of the US, and that you will find something positive to counter-balance the negative image of Americans as "a nation of gun nuts or just nuts" (Moore's own words!).
Our aim as English teachers is not to make our students anti-American, there is too much of it already in the media!
Here are some articles about the film:
the Guardian :
La plume noire (l'article n'est qu'en anglais) :
Indiewire (independent films) :
An interview with Mike Moore and videos :
Official website of the film with the trailers in all formats:
Clips and soundtracks
photos and articles :
Denver Post, with this statement from Marilyn Manson : ""Keep people afraid and they consume," the rocker Marilyn Manson tells Moore backstage at a Denver concert."
A short synopsis :
And Mike Moore's website (Alain Krizic on e-teach advises you to see
"Operation oily Residue - war is fun when you know you won't die" with embedded links to many news articles about Bush and Irak:
Why the title?
"The title of the Michael Moore film, "Bowling for Columbine," refers to the bowling class that teen gunmen Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold took not long before the shootings "
you can also understand it from the trailer on
As for Columbine, it is of course the name of a school where shootings took place, but it is also the name of a very nice and peaceful flower ("une ancolie" en français).
Faces Behind the Guns (Grades to 6-8, 9-12) (from Annie Gwynn on e-teach)
A Civics Lesson Exploring Who Owns Guns and Why After recent months in which acts of violence by individuals with guns have filled the news, students look at another angle of the issue. In this lesson, they use the New York Times article profiling ordinary citizens who legally own guns as the basis of a role-playing exercise in which they explore the types of people who own firearms and their personal reasons for doing so. (Monday, September 13, 1999)
On Infonews :
you will find the pages I built as the Columbine massacre happened. There is a page for teachers, with links and website interesting to use in class.
don't miss the link to the page Alain Novak designed at the same moment:
And then your students from upper secondary school or older can use the page of links to visit and build their own report and opinion:
Surveys and polls
Survey: Schools Vulnerable to Terror
From The Baltimore Sun: October 7.
A text that could be used to complement the work you will do around the film "Bowling for Columbine"
Poll on Violence in the Classroom
Violence and non-violence (by Jean Sahai)
Voici quelques autres sites, sélectionnés par Jean Sahai, notre collègue de Guadeloupe:
Violence entre nations
La Federation of American Scientists qui met en garde contre l'escalade de la violence
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security, with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solutions of international conflicts and for a stable peace.
Tout commence à la maison !
Practicing nonviolence in the Home comes first !
The school environment crisis - can we cope?
Various different forms of bullying, their causes, and ways to deal with bullying.
Stéréotypes - faites les voler en éclats !
* How Tolerant Are Kids in Your School? How unkind words can hurt.
* Teaching About Tolerance Through Music
* Everybody Is Unique: Respect for Others' Differences
L'ignorance est la cause des conflits - mieux connaître l'autre permet de le respecter
February is Black History month in the US
Stop School Violence lesson plans from Israel colleagues
Les artistes et leur influence
How musicians and singers endeavour to relay messages of peace.
How popular songs relate to current issues and themes. Lesson plans.
Jane Nelsen's positive solutions site: an Adlerian approach, a nonviolent way of raising children with love and respect at home and at school.
Einstein, Gandhi, Martin Luther King - leur combat pour l'égalité par l'exemple
Albert Einstein's vision of Peace and War
Gandhi's grand daughter continues his work
Video games and Crime
The Scout report from November 15 offers this week a special report about this burning issue :"Video Game Serves as Inspiration for Criminal Activity". This subject can complement this special report about violence in school. Here is first their own comment, and then the links and my comments:
The first link leads to the news story that reports the full details of thisrecent wave of auto thefts in southeastern Wisconsin. The second site is areport on video games, First Amendment rights, and public policy by Dr.David Walsh of the National Institute on Media and the Family. The third link is to the Video Game Research Site, maintained by Professor John Sherry at Purdue University, which contains several helpful papers on the nature of video game research and the potential effects of long-term exposure to these games. The fourth site is that of the Entertainment Software Rating Board, a
self-regulatory body that deals with all facets of the entertainment
software industry, and is also responsible for determining which rating any particular game will receive. The fifth link is to a series of special reports written by journalists at the Seattle Post-Intelligencer on violence and video games. The final link is to a prepared statement given by Lee Peeler, the Deputy Director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection, on the marketing of violent entertainment products to children by the video-game,
motion picture, and music industries. [KMG]
Teen Car Thief Blames Video Game
A short article which can be used from second year of secondary school upwards. It seems excellent to start a debate in class.
Video Game Violence and Public Policy
A very interesting report for teachers and advanced students, from the National Institute on Media and the Family, referring to several survey and other reports. For in depth research on the subject.
Eight students research papers on the subject. For teachers and very
Links to information about video games
Links to Sega and some other websites of game producers and manufacturers.
Entertainment Software Rating Board
This site is useful when you know the names of the games. just enter it, and you get the rating. Most students, especially boys, play video games a lot. You can send them to the site and discuss the ratings. For example, for Resident Evil, one of the most violent, you get the rating : for mature people (17+) and the comment : "Animated Blood & Gore, Animated Violence, Realistic Blood & Gore"....
Seattle Post-Intelligencer Special Report: Violence and Video games
A report with several articles, interviews of users of different opinion:
And a very interesting page of links :
Including an article about Columbine:
"The shooters and the shrinks"
The article is illustrated with a gun and a computer keyboard, a good way to start the discussion and brainstorm ideas on the subject
Prepared Statement of the Federal Trade Commission
A draft for an official proposition. Another document to be discuss : could we (or do we...)have the same type of recommendation in France? In Europe? write your own proposition...