Les nouveaux enseignants étouffés par le stress 

Le burnout est-il la nouvelle maladie professionnelle des enseignants ? Une nouvelle étude menée par une équipe de l’Université de Bordeaux 2 (coordonnée par Laurence Bergugnat et Nicole Rascle), soutenue par la Mgen, la Casden, la Maïf, le Snes et le Snuipp montre qu'un nouvel enseignant sur dix est en état de burnout dès sa première année d'enseignement. En cause le climat scolaire mais surtout la représentation du métier.

 

Un épuisement croissant des enseignants débutants

 

Cette étude a été menée de 2008 à 2011 auprès de 744 enseignants stagiaires. La moitié des enquêtés sont des professeurs des écoles, l'autre moitié des professeurs des lycées et collèges, les PLP.étant peu nombreux. Selon l'étude, la moitié des enseignants (47%) souffre d'épuisement émotionnel, 56% de dépersonnalisation (forte détérioration de la relation aux élèves), la seconde caractéristique du burnout. Mais une moitié aussi estime s'accomplir professionnellement, un troisième point évalué pour le burnout. Pire encore, " l’évolution de la dépersonnalisation et de l’épuisement émotionnel suivent une courbe ascendante constante linéaire dans le temps, quels que soient les sujets". Au final, seulement 10 à 15% des enseignants ne souffrent pas de leur entrée dans l'enseignement.

 

Quels effets sur les élèves ?

 

Curieusement les enseignants en épuisement professionnel amènent leurs élèves à être scolairement plus compétents. Ils s'investissent davantage et ont sans doute davantage d'exigences. Mais ces enseignants qui dépersonnalisent la relation ont plus de mal à établir une relation positive avec les garçons. Ils transmettent aussi leur pessimisme aux élèves et les sous-évaluent.

 

Quels facteurs ?

 

Les chercheurs ont essayé d'établir les facteurs qui entrainent ce burnout. Ils soulignent l'importance du climat scolaire sur la dépersonnalisation, un mauvais climat pouvant l'entraîner. Mais le facteur premier reste la représentation que l'enseignant se fait de son métier. "Plus l’enseignant se représente le métier à caractère social et moins il le considère comme difficile, plus il a un accomplissement personnel élevé. A l’inverse, plus il l’appréhende comme pénible et non relationnel, plus il a des risques de connaître un épuisement émotionnel".

 

Quelles réponses ?

 

L Bergugnat recommande donc "de travailler en formation sur les représentations des enseignants... Les enseignants, en prenant conscience du travail émotionnel à l’œuvre face aux difficultés rencontrées dans l’exercice du métier, se donnent ainsi les moyens d’évacuer les affects négatifs engendrant des mécanismes de défense, de prendre de la distance pour construire des réponses appropriées et de modifier leur pratique professionnelle en vue d’une meilleure efficacité et relation aux élèves."

 

En 2008, L Bergugnat et Nicole Rascle avaient publié un ouvrage sur le stress des enseignants mettant en évidence l'influence de la mutation du système éducatif. "Le stress trouve son origine dans la mutation du système et de la société également en train de s’opérer", notaient-elles, "engendrant des situations de défis à relever mais aussi de menace ou de perte qui ont un coût pour les personnels au niveau des ressources individuels et collectives qu’ils ont à développer pour faire face au changement". Cette nouvelle étude ne concerne pas des enseignants qui ont connu l'ancien système mais des professeurs nouveaux. L'éducation nationale affronte en fait une nouvelle difficulté.

 

Laurence Bergugnat éclaire les apports de cette étude.

10% de professionnels en burnout est-ce un taux exceptionnel ?

 

Cela reste dans les taux moyens pour les métiers de la relation d'aide, comme enseignant, soignant ou travailleur social. Par contre ce qui est embêtant c'est que ce taux porte sur des débutants.

 

En 2008 vous mettiez en cause la mutation de l'Ecole dans l'apparition du stress. Est-ce encore le cas avec ces enseignants ?

 

Non car il s'agit de débutants qui n'ont pas connu l'ancien système. Il se passe autre chose. Il est clair qu'on ne prête pas assez d'attention à la gestion des ressources humaines notamment dans le moment de l'entrée dans le métier. Ces enseignants débutants sont souvent obligés d'enseigner très loin de chez eux, parfois dans des contextes difficiles. On peut voir la différence entre ceux qui ont un contexte plus facile ou un milieu conforme à leurs attentes et ceux qui souffrent et n'arrivent pas à exercer leur métier, par exemple parce qu’ils ne sentent pas respectés par les élèves. Certains ont du mal à s'adapter, à exercer une autorité éducative. Ceux qui ne souffrent pas de burnout sont ceux qui arrivent à se remettre en question, à trouver des stratégies différentes et sont aidés. Il y a nettement une question de gestion des ressources humaines qui se pose.

 

Il s'agit des néo titulaires envoyés en classe sans formation ?

 

Non vous avez vu les dates : ce sont des enseignants passés par l'IUFM dans l'ancien système avec une formation à la clé. .

 

Quels remèdes proposer ?

 

 Une formation sur les représentations et sur la gestion des situations difficiles est la bonne réponse. Si on forme les nouveaux enseignants que à la didactique des disciplines déconnectée des situations de travail réelles, les nouveaux enseignants n'échapperont pas au choc de la réalité. Il faut les aider et les accompagner, par l’analyse de leur pratique par exemple.

 

Qui souffre le plus ? Les professeurs des écoles (PE) ou les professeurs des lycées et collèges (PLC) ?

 

Les PE ressentent un  épuisement émotionnel plus fort que dans le second degré. Cela tient peut-être à leur relation plus investie avec les élèves, jusqu’à parfois un surinvestissement dans cette relation. C'est différent pour les enseignants du second degré. Il y a aussi le changement survenu dans les conditions de travail dans le premier degré avec l'arrivée des 2 heures d'accompagnement personnalisé. L'institution n'a pas vu qu'elle modifiait le contenu même du travail des enseignants. C'est à nouveau ce qui se passe avec les changements des rythmes scolaires en ce moment.  Il faut accompagner ce changement.

 

Propos recueillis par François Jarraud

Voir aussi :

"Le stress trouve son origine dans la mutation du système"


Par fjarraud , le jeudi 06 décembre 2012.

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        To solve this problem, sildenafil citrate, which is the main ingredient in Cenforce 50, relaxes the muscles in the penis area. The blood vessels of the penis are dilated to store a large amount of blood. In general, a situation is created where you can be sure that the blood will not encounter obstacles on its way to the penis.
        Now another problem is to maintain this erection for a long time. For this, sildenafil citrate limits the level of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) in the body. Sildenafil citrate causes the penis to not be erect after intercourse. Therefore, people who use Cenforce 150mg experience long lasting erections.

        How to take Cenforce 150 mg?
        The procedure for taking Cenforce 120 is quite simple and easy, but there are certain steps that need to be followed.
        Take 1 tablet with a glass of water and swallow it.
        Do not chew or break tablets into pieces.
        The liquid with which you take the Cenforce FM 100 should only be plain water. The use of other drinks such as alcohol, fruit juices may cause an unknown reaction.
        Take the tablet about 30 minutes before getting ready for sex. There is a widespread doubt in the minds of men that pills do not work.
        They don't understand that the pills take time to absorb and produce an erection in the penis. And above all, this pill and other pills only work when the body is already agitated.
        Cenforce 100 promote penile erection but do not improve mood. The initiation of sexual desire must come from your side.

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  • amelia2, le 23/12/2017 à 15:57
    Des réactions adéquates aux situations stressantes auxquelles sont confrontées les enseignants peuvent permettre d’en prévenir les conséquences néfastes sur leur santé : cet ajustement au stress au travail nécessite d’utiliser différentes méthodes comportementales de faire face (coping), pour maintenir un bon état de santé physique et psychique, notamment quand elles sont soumises à des risques d’agressions verbales, d'incivilités répétées comme ici dans le secteur éducatif : formation à la prévention des risques psychologiques au travail par les techniques de coping serait indispensable ! : http://www.officiel-prevention.com/protections-collectives-organisation-ergonomie/psychologie-du-travail/detail_dossier_CHSCT.php?rub=38&ssrub=163&dossid=486
    • oliverdavis, le 20/09/2022 à 05:55

      Iverheal 12 is an oral medicine intended for the treatment of infections or parasitic attacks. Doctors prescribe these drugs to patients with scabies and filariasis. These are parasitic diseases resulting from external influences. Scabies is a small parasite that occurs in people with the scabies mite. Filariasis is also the cause of infection spread by mosquitoes. It causes swelling in the legs, while scabies causes irritation, pimples and rashes. Both conditions can cause serious health problems if not treated quickly. Thus, patients receive the necessary treatment with Iverheal 12 preparations. Also, label warnings and doctor's instructions should be strictly followed.

      Iverheal 6 is a powerful medicine to treat eye and skin infections. Indeed, Iverheal is the brand name for ivermectin-based drugs. Thus, it is a generic preparation of ivermectin for the treatment of infections of the human body. The Food and Drug Administration has approved ivermectin for the prevention of parasitic infections in adults.
      Iversun 12 is the potency or strength of the next drug.
      Ivermectin is an effective chemical compound against parasites in the human body.
      Iversun 6 also treats symptoms such as heartworm or itching.
      Generic Vermact 12 is mainly available in tablet form. Therefore, patients should take these tablets orally as recommended by the doctor.
      Several case studies show potential benefits against parasitic infections.
      Patients can buy Ivecop 12 online or offline. However, a valid medical prescription from a board-certified physician is required to purchase these drugs.
      First, parasites live and thrive in the human body. It causes cell damage and various side effects. The most common area is irritation and swelling of the eyes and other parts of the body. Ivermectin targets these harmful bacteria and reduces their spread. Thus, the drug creates a layer of synthetic proteins around the parasites. As a result, bacteria do not spread in your function. Parasites can be harmful and can lead to death or paralysis. Therefore, patients should continue taking these pills to prevent the spread of bacteria. Remember that the process of removing unwanted substances from the body takes time. Take the doctor's constellation for the exact dosage of Iverheal 12.
      Iverheal 12 is a powerful and effective remedy for infections. However, there is a possibility of having side effects. This can happen mainly in case of overdose or failure to follow warnings. Therefore, people should consult their doctor before taking these pills.
      These are oral tablets, so small that they need to be washed down with a glass of water.
      Wait a bit after taking the pills
      Avoid chewing, crushing or breaking the tablet. Otherwise, the drug may lose its effect.
      Do not overdose the tablets. It will cause side effects
      Take one tablet at least one hour before meals
      If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. These drugs take time to show effective results. Therefore, patients must maintain regularity.
      One tablet for 24 hours is more than enough for the patient.
      As mentioned, the following drugs are associated with various side effects. Some of them are common, but some side effects can cause permanent damage. So, strictly follow the warnings on the label and the recommendations of the doctors.
      The following drugs are contraindicated in pregnant women.
      The use of these drugs in children has mixed results.
      These drugs should be taken by patients with asthma, HIV, and liver problems.
      Avoid taking pills if you are breastfeeding women
      Patients over 65 should consult before taking the tablets. Indeed, elderly patients have impaired liver function. Thus, the drug may not absorb its function properly.
      Stop drinking alcohol while taking these medications.
      Avoid these drugs if you are allergic to ivermectin tablets.

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      • oliverdavis, le 20/09/2022 à 05:56

        What is Vilitra 60 Mg?

        Vilitra 60 mg is the finished mix of Vardenafil 60mg, kept up with and kept an erection during closeness, which didn’t fulfil the accomplice because of an absence of blood in the erectile parcel of men considered useless. He encompasses vardenafil as a significant reasonable part.
        Vilitra 60 mg Tablet is a healthy recipe intended to treat erectile brokenness in men. This tablet includes vardenafil, a typical class of type phosphodiesterase – 5 inhibitors.
        Erectile brokenness is when the patient can’t get a proper erection while cooperating. Super Vilitra will, in general, build the strength of s*x as the body’s synthetics change.
        What is the use of the Vilitra 60 Mg tablet?
        Vilitra 40 tablets are utilized to treat erectile brokenness.
        Vilitra 60mg is a typical type of PDE-5, which is more driving reason for erectile brokenness. Erectile dysfunction mitigates during heartfelt exercises, brings down the pulse, and makes it difficult to get an erection with actual closeness.
        Vilitra 20 is an intense PDE 5 inhibitor. This medication has been displayed to have an impact that restrains the action of this compound at tactile minutes, causing:
        Animate the activity of cGMP
        Enlistment of vasodilation
        Expanded bloodstream
        Erection
        How to take Vilitra 60 Mg?
        Vilitra 10 mg medicine is accessible in tablet structure & is taken orally. For best outcomes, this medicine ought to be required 45 minutes before actual intimacy. Try not to eat greasy food sources with Vilitra 60mg tablets as it might reduce the retention of this medicine. Try not to require two tablets around the same time as they can be dangerous.
        What are the warnings and precautions of Vilitra 60 Mg?
        Warning
        Patients having issues like weakness, leukemia, delayed erection, high or low circulatory strain, parchedness, chest torment, stroke and angina, renal or liver issue ought to counsel their wellbeing supplier before having this medication.
        Stay away from liquor utilization and smoking throughout this medication.
        Try not to rehash the portion in 24hours because the impact of this medication stays basically for 24hours.
        Precaution
        Assuming that you are taking nitrates-containing medication, then, at that point, try not to utilize Vilitra alongside these meds like Isosorbides or Nitro-glycerine.
        Please avoid utilizing liquor or other sporting meds alongside Vilitra as it might cause severe unfriendly impacts.
        On the off chance that your age is under 18 years, then, at that point, try not to utilize this medication.
        On the off chance that you have a set of experiences with a drawn-out or agonizing erection, then, at that point, utilize this medication with alert.

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  • Nimier, le 06/12/2012 à 10:46
    Article très intéressant dans la mesure où il montre bien que le stress est en particulier une question de représentation.
    Mais ce terme de "représentation" est souvent utilisé sans que l'on sache exactemet ce qu'il veut dire. Voir: "Qu'est-ce qu'une représentation selon Edgar Morin"
    http://www.pedagopsy.eu/page22.htm

    On pourra également compléter cet article par l'étude des processus du stress selon le Laboratoire de recherche LPA de Reims: "Qu'est ce que le stress" http://www.pedagopsy.eu/page643.htm

    Puis enfin savoir qu'on peut en particulier gérer le stress par la relaxation:
    http://www.pedagopsy.eu/gestion_stress.htm
    • oliverdavis, le 20/09/2022 à 05:56

      What is Kamagra 100mg?

      Kamagra 100 is an FDA-approved and clinically tested medication that is an oral and physician-recommended medication primarily used to treat erectile dysfunction and problems associated with male inability. She is otherwise referred to as the famous magical "Blue Pill" in light of her looks and appearance.
      Clinical approval and rigorous testing have made it possible to treat blood flow problems with just one tablet. An exceptionally productive and strong recipe is also used in the treatment of hypertension, hyperplasia.
      Kamagra is an oral medication that will help you enjoy your time with your partner. It increases blood flow to the penis and then makes it erect and firm for a longer period of time for an ideal period of time so that you can have casual sex.
      What are the benefits of Kamagra 100mg?
      Kamagra Oral Jelly is also used to treat erectile dysfunction in men. It can help various people who experience the ill effects of erectile dysfunction to acquire and maintain an erection when they are physically aroused (animated). You will definitely not get an erection just by taking this stuff or any other generic sildenafil.
      The tablets are advertised as Common X from time to time. The manufacturer of the X brand has taken a strong stand against pharmacies using their image, and subsequently we cannot confirm this. Branded tablet computers are made of gemstone and again blue in a hidden form - you remember them well, and we adhere to the principle of excellent support and also do not want to offend the manufacturer of the brand.
      How do Kamagra 100mg tablets work?
      Super Kamagra is a remarkable drug that has demonstrated its prescription with genuine results. It is a very effective and strong drug that uses sildenafil citrate as a functional agent. Sildenafil citrate is a similar drug used in a well-known drug called Generic Viagra. A similar synthetic material is available at a very low cost and gives the same results with top performance.
      A penile erection occurs when the penis fills with enough blood during sex when you are physically alert. Assuming you have enough blood supply to the penis, you will get a strong and long-lasting erection, but wearing the penis doesn't have enough blood, then you won't want to maintain or maintain an erection.
      This condition usually happens from time to time; however, assuming it wins over a longer period of time and occurs regularly, you are likely to be determined to have erectile dysfunction problems.
      Kamagra Chewable is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor. It works by extending limited cycles and clearing blockages. Kamagra helps increase the convergence of cGMP and nitric oxide and thus relaxes the muscles and tissues in the pelvic area. These conditions allow the veins to pump enough blood to the penis to make it harder and harder for a longer duration.
      Thus, you can get and maintain a firm erection for a longer period of time during sex and have a good time with your partner.
      How to take Kamagra 100 mg?
      Kamagra Effervescent is a powerful drug and you can certainly get it online. In any case, consistently start ED treatment after a legitimate assessment and with the right decision. Take one of these magic pills with plain water about 40-50 minutes before sex for the most significant reward.
      Try not to take the pill with any organic juices or smoothies. Take the Kamagra 100mg tablet in general without disturbing the orbit. Try not to let women and children under 18 take the remedy as it is harmful and not recommended for their use.
      Kamagra 100 is taken with or without dinner. The type of feast does not affect the result and skill of the tablet.
      What happens if you miss a dose or take an overdose of Kamagra 100mg?
      Kamagra Polo contain sildenafil 50 mg and dapoxetine 50 mg. Sildenafil is required once every 24 hours, and dapoxetine 30-60 mg once every 24 hours. It is usually enough, when necessary, 1 hour before intercourse with an accomplice. If a person has any kind of liver disease or kidney infection, then Kamagra 100 mg tablets should be avoided at this point. Before facing any problem, it is wise to consult a specialist.

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      • bretleet430, le 21/09/2022 à 09:22
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    • Stanislas, le 17/02/2015 à 16:55
      Bonjour,

      je viens de tomber sur votre commentaire et voulais lire les articles auxquels vous faites allusion. Cependant, les pages que vous citez ne semblent plus être d'actualité. Par conséquent, je voulais vous demander si vous aviez les articles en question en format .pdf?

      Merci d'avance.
    • bergugnat, le 06/12/2012 à 14:56
      Merci Mr Nimier pour ce complément. Pour montrer aux lecteurs que la recherche s'appuie toujours sur des travaux précédents, il est important de préciser que nous sommes partis des études pionnières sur le sujet du stress en France menées justement par le laboratoire LPA de Reims auquel vous faites référence. Nous confirmons donc par notre étude ce que le professeur Lassarre avait déjà bien montré et vous-même aussi je crois, à savoir les effets des représentations sur le stress. Pour les enseignants, ces effets sont notables et il serait donc tout à fait pertinent de travailler en formation initiale et tout au long de la carrière sur les représentations, les croyances, les idéaux sur le métier pour réduire l'écart  avec la réalité rencontrée et amorcer ainsi la construction d'une identité professionnelle. Il est donc souhaitable que la nouvelle formation dans le cadre des Ecoles supérieures du professorat tienne compte de ces résultats et réponde  à l'exigence d'une préparation de qualité à l'entrée dans le métier, même si la formation n'est pas la seule et unique solution au problème du burnout, le dossier de la gestion des ressources humaines et de l'accompagnement des équipes dans le processus de réforme restant un vaste chantier.
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